sample thesis

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

 

Introduction

The complexity of human activities causes a lot of effects to the lives of every individual. Whatever the effect of these activities, favorable or not, man is affected particularly in the aspect on how every activity is to be carried out using his physical strength thus making him stressed eventually. It is normal for people to experience stress but when it comes, every person should be ready to handle it in order for its effect to become favorable on his part. Though generally, its effects are negative. In the view of many people, on the other hand, it can benefit others in some ways.

No one can live without experiencing some degree of stress at all times (Selye1987). Stress nowadays plays a great part not only on students but also in each person’s daily living, it occurs when there is an imbalance between the demands of life and our ability to cope with them. Most people know something about stress. One may think that only serious disease or intensive physical or mental injury can cause stress, this is false (Selye1978). Job pressures, school works, family arguments, financial pressures and not having enough time are just few of the stressors that people at the present day society faces daily. In fact, it has been accepted in the society that everyday stress is part of modern living (Murray and Pizzorno, 1998).

The issue on how people respond on stress should be given much importance to eliminate the detrimental effects of it; one is the possible disease that a human body can have. The human response to stressful events is an ancient one, dating back to a time when life is a constant struggle for survival. Unfortunately, people are not sensitive enough to recognize what is causing them to feel stressed. What these people may notice are the physical sign of stress, such as insomnia, depression, fatigue, headache, upset stomach, digestive disturbances, and irritability living (Murray and Pizzorno).

            Indeed, the concern about the proper stress management is very important for it will give an assurance of competency for every individual. Knowing what should be done whenever it occurs for us to have alternatives in facing whatever result it can give. Upon dealing stress properly, then we are confident and assured that everything will have a good result that favors every effort that we have done in carrying out routine activities of human lives, making effective and efficient handlers of whatever scenario relative to our lives.

            This study will help the student nurses to manage their stress and be competent in different clinical area.

 

Statement of the Problem

 

The aim of this study was to determine the “Extent of Stress Experienced by Level IV Nursing Students of Good Samaritan College in Treating Patient with Clustered Age Group”.

 

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:

 

1.)  What are the perceived level of stress among selected level IV nursing students of Good Samaritan College in terms of:

a.)  studies

b.)  family

c.)   friends

d.)  relationship

2.)  Which of these stressors has greatly contributed to the stress felt by the students thus affecting the performance of the nursing students?

3.)  What age group contributes most to the stress being felt by the students?

4.)  What are the coping mechanisms the respondents used to manage their stress and improve their performance?

 

Significance of the Study

 

To the Researchers: This study will enable the researchers to apply the theories learned in nursing research thus helping them to hone their skills.

To the Nursing Students: They will be given more knowledge on the proper stress coping mechanisms. They will be able to learn some alternative techniques or actions on how to at least alleviate the stress they are facing in their everyday lives. Nursing students will somehow be ready in handling everyday stressors that might come. They will be competent and be effective nurses someday.

To the Clinical Instructors: This study will give them knowledge on the levels of stress felt by their students. The clinical instructors then will be able to plan and balance the different academic and clinical requirements to be done by the students.

To the Future Researchers: This study will serve as guide and source of information to the future researchers thus make them finish their paper easier and faster.

 

 

 

Scope and Limitation

 

            The respondents were 50 selected level IV nursing students at Good Samaritan College who were chosen by incidental sampling.

            The researchers conducted this study during the first semester of school year 2009. The emphasis of this study was placed on the “Extent of Stress Experienced by Level IV Nursing Students of Good Samaritan College in Treating Patient with Clustered Age Group”. The actual study on the respondents was conducted from June to October 2009.

 

Theoretical Framework

 

            One of the normal effect of nurses’ everyday lives is stress; nurses’ lives is not normal in a way that you will have incomplete hours of sleep and night becoming day.

            Through stress management, nursing students are being capable of facing different stressors in school and in hospital setting. Their competency and effectivity of these students may also depend on how they adapt and cope with stress.

On Hans Selye’s Stress of Life, he pointed out that few people define the concept of stress in the same way or even bother to attempt a clear-cut definition. According to Selye, an important aspect of stress is that a wide variety of dissimilar situations are capable of producing the stress response such as fatigue, effort, pain, fear, and even success. This has led to several definitions of stress, each of which highlights different aspects of stress.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theoretical Paradigm

 

 

 

Determine the Stressors on the Nursing Students and their

Coping Mechanisms

 

 

 

Distribution of questionnaires to the respondents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Good Performance,

Competent and Effective Nurses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

Paradigm of the Study

Definition of Terms

 

            The following are terms defined by the researchers to ensure clearer understanding and appreciation of the study:

 

Adaptation. The process or state of changing to fit new circumstances or conditions, or the resulting change (Encarta Encyclopedia)

Affectivity. This mean causing a result, especially the desired or intended result. (Encarta Encyclopedia)

Competency.  The ability to do something well or to a required standard (Encarta Encyclopedia)

Coping mechanisms.  It is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage, or disability without correcting or eliminating the underlying condition. Coping skills are also sometimes called work-arounds. Virtually all living beings routinely utilize coping skills in daily life. These are perhaps most noticeable in response to physical disabilities. (Encarta Encyclopedia)

Stress. It is a strain felt by somebody: mental, emotional, or physical strain caused, for example by anxiety or overwork. It may cause such symptoms as raised blood pressure or depression. (Encarta Encyclopedia)

Stressors. These are something that causes stress: an activity, experience, or other situation that causes stress, for example lack of water to a plant or overwork to a person (Encarta Encyclopedia).

Chapter 2

RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Foreign Literature

              The book of Howard Bloom on evolution entitled ‘Global Brain’ (2000), says, ‘Humans who can solve a problem remain vigorous. But, those who cannot get a grip on their dilemma become victims of self-destruct mechanisms.’  This applies to students – those who are on top of their work and see no problem they cannot deal with are successful, those who feel they have lost their grip, and let self-doubt take control of their thinking, generally fail.

             Self-doubt can lead to depression. This will have serious consequences for health, mental stability, and for the ability to study successfully. No one can see into your mind and read your thoughts, so don’t expect anyone to offer help. You have to seek help, and it is important that you do so early. Go to someone you can trust, and who is mature enough to understand your problem, and talk it through with them, and ask for advice.

  Drugs to relieve stress, such as anti-depressants, can be dangerous and may make the condition worse instead of better, and the side effects can be quite nasty.

  He also mentioned that parents and teachers should also be sensitive to this problem, and be aware that it is likely to affect some students more than others. Keeping a watchful eye on any change of mood or activities may help to head off a potential problem, even a disaster, or tragedy.

               Bloom emphasized that keeping to a healthy life-style is another key to controlling stress. Adequate sleep, regular outdoor exercise, and a well balanced diet, are all essential ingredients for beating stress. (http://www.memoryskills.com.)

             On Trevor Dumbleton’s Causes of Stress (2006), he says that in order to eliminate or at least control stress, it is vital to know and understand the causes of stress. Of course, there are many causes of stress and they are as varied as the people who suffer from stress, but there are a few places to look first. And by learning about these causes of stress, you can figure out where stress is entering your life, especially on students life. One of the most common, and most complained about, causes of stress is studies. However, it is not only the day-to-day tasks and routine pressures in schools that can lead to stress. The constant pressure of schoolwork, friends, teachers, tests, quizzes, papers, and everything else can be enough to make anyone feel like they are in trapped in a vice. In addition, the deadlines are all immoveable, so students are constantly under time pressure. And, to make matters worse, there are often several deadlines overlapping each other, intensifying the demands on time. Then, once final exams arrive, there is a lot to re-learn and students need to spend so much time studying that they can barely sleep. Needless to say, losing sleep does not help people who are under stress. Thus, students need to manage stress just as much as people who work. Another cause of stress is simple family life. Unfortunately, though we hope that our home lives can be sources of relief from daily stress, they can often be sources of stress all their own. For children as well as parents, the home can often be its own source of pressure. Unfortunately, parents can be causes of stress also. Though they often have their childrens’ best interests in mind, they can also put a lot of pressure onto their children, causing them to worry not only about school or life, but also how their parents will react when they hear about some new event, success, or error. It is as though there is no place to turn when things go wrong, creating extra stress. No, it is not easy being a parent, but it isn’t always easy being a child or a teenager either, since parents can often be causes of stress as much as sources of comfort from it.

                 In the book he emphasized that money is also a major cause of stress, simply for the fact that there never seems to be enough of it. Thus, as the money keeps going out but it never seems to come in enough, stress just keeps mounting. Unfortunately, children and sometimes parents can often remind us of our shortfalls and they will often increase the stress.

            No matter where the problem is arising, stress will not make them better. Rather, stress will only make it harder for people to think about their problems and try to solve them. Thus, in order to solve the problems that lead to stress, the best place to start is by managing the stress, then working to solve the problems with a clear and uncluttered mind. 

(http://www.earticlesonline.com/Article/Causes-of-Stress/1493)

              In Goodman (1993) and Leroy’s (1988) article they correlated that stressors affecting students can be categorized as academic, financial, time or health, and self-imposed. Academic stressors include the student’s perception of the extensive knowledge base required and the perception of an inadequate time to develop it. Students report experiencing academic stress at predictable times each semester with the greatest sources of academic stress resulting from taking and studying for exams, grade competition, different subjects, projects, activities and even classmates and the large amount of content to master in a small amount of time. The concept of time management is generally defined in terms of clusters of behavior that are deemed to facilitate productivity and alleviate stress. Effective time management strategies increase academic performance and are frequently suggested by academic assistance personnel as aids to enhance achievement for college students. Productive study methods are characterized by “time management” and “strategic studying”. Although programs emphasize starting large tasks well before due dates, breaking down large tasks into small ones, and doing small tasks on a regular schedule, students regularly ignore these techniques and find themselves in great distress before exams.

             It was hypothesized that academic stress would show a significant positive correlation with anxiety, and a significant negative correlation with self-reported time management behaviors and leisure satisfaction of college students. A person engaging more frequently in time management behaviors will report fewer physical and psychological symptoms of stress.

               We can say that at one time or another, most people experience stress. The term stress has been used to describe a variety of negative feelings and reactions that accompany threatening or challenging situations. However, not all stress reactions are negative. A certain amount of stress is actually necessary for survival. For example, birth is one of the most stressful experiences of life. The high level of hormones released during birth, which are also involved in the stress response, are believed to prepare the newborn infant for adaptation to the challenges of life outside the womb. However, while a certain amount of stress is necessary for survival; prolonged stress can affect health adversely. (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc)

                There are a numbers of definitions of stress as well as number of events that can lead to the experience of stress. It is viewed as harmful, as threatening, or as challenging. With so many factors that can contribute to stress it can be difficult to define the concept of “stress”. Hans Selye’s Stress of Life points out that few people define the concept of stress in the same way or even bother to attempt a clear-cut definition. According to Selye, an important aspect of stress is that a wide variety of dissimilar situations are capable of producing the stress response such as fatigue, effort, pain, fear, and even success. This has led to several definitions of stress, each of which highlights different aspects of stress.

 

Stress is described as the non-specific response of the human organism to a change in its environment. As such it can be a positive factor, providing heightened awareness and energy to deal with the precipitating stimulus.  In contrast, too much stress or stress continued without remission over an extended period of time is detrimental to human well-being.  Hans Selye has been a pioneer in the study of these phenomena.  He identified two types of stress, “eustress” a positive condition, functional for meeting life’s challenges and “distress” a negative condition resulting from too intense or unremitting demands on the person, (1976). Prolonged exposure to unrelieved, high levels of distress whether from physical, psychological, social or environmental demands leads to a newly recognized condition titled “burnout”.  (http://www.aiias.edu/ict/vol_03)

   One of the most comprehensive models of stress is the Biopsychosocial Model of Stress by Bernard and Krupat (1994). According to the Biopsychosocial Model of Stress, stress involves three components: an external component, an internal component, and the interaction between the external and internal components.

                The external component of the Biopsychosocial Model of stress involves environmental events that precede the recognition of stress and can elicit a stress response. A previously mentioned, the stress reaction is elicited by a wide variety of psychosocial stimuli that are either physiologically or emotionally threatening and disrupt the body’s homeostasis. We are usually aware of stressors when we feel conflicted, frustrated, or pressured. Most of the common stressors fall within four broad categories: personal, social/familial, work, and the environment. These stressful events have been linked to a variety of psychological physical complaints. For example bereavement is a particularly difficult stressor and has provided some of the first systematic evidence of a link between stress and immune functioning. Bereavement research generally supports a relationship between a sense of loss and lowered immune system functioning. Health problems and increased accidents are also associated with stressful work demands, job insecurity and changes in job responsibilities.

             The internal component of stress involves a set of neurological and physiological reactions to stress. Hans Selye defined stress as “nonspecific” in that the stress response can result from a variety of different kinds of stressors and he thus focused on the internal aspects of stress. (http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/stress.htm)

Local Literature

            The scenes of smiling and laughing Filipinos, singing and dancing (and drinking) away can be deceptive. Quite often, Filipinos especially the young ones and the students deal with stress by trying to be “happy.” I put that in quotes because the Filipino term is masaya, which is really more of an externalized merriment. Masaya is social camaraderie, it’s making cheer and quite often we do it precisely because there have been unhappy events, stressful events. The best example is that of a death — our wakes are notorious for its merry-making, but that, precisely, is part of our stress-coping mechanism.

            We have folk psychology, maybe even folk psychiatry, at work here, Filipinos aware of how dangerous it is to allow stress to consume us. We warn people about excesses as a cause of illness, and that includes the excessive emotions generated by stress.

            But for all the talk about our communitarian orientation, of helping friends to overcome stress, social pressures in the Philippines can also be counterproductive with the way we sometimes force people to repress the stress. “Enjoy!” we urge them, not realizing there are limits to resilience.

            There are power dimensions to all this, such as those found in gender. Contrary to stereotypes about women student being more expressive, Filipinas are actually more prone to dealing with stressful situations through tiis (endurance) and kimkim (repression). Check out the local scenes of merriment: it’s usually men students having a good time, bringing out the beer and toasting their problems away, while their women look for ways to make ends meet.

            Men, students too, are expected to keep their feelings in check, but more out of masculine values of strength and stoicism. Men are generally not allowed to cry, much less to go into hysterics; and this probably helps to explain why more men suffer from cardiovascular disease.

            According to Dr. Lourdes Ignacio many students will express their stress by complaining about recurring headaches, or abdominal pains, accompanied by dizziness, nausea, fatigue. Doctors used to dismiss these as being all in the mind, but it has become clear the physical pain and distress may be quite real, that the pent-up stress is expressed through the body.

            The macho imperatives around stress are inevitably tied to alcohol and drugs. Younger male Filipinos especially nursing are particularly vulnerable, given their struggles with identity, masculinity and self-esteem, unable to express their frustrations and resentment. Drugs are one way of dealing with the stress, with all its attendant problems. It’s significant though that the most abused drugs are metaphetamines, which are “uppers” or stimulants. Again, the Filipino response to stress is to look for more stimulation. The nerve cells fire away until, frayed and exhausted, the user develops paranoia (borrowed into Filipino as praning) and then psychosis.

Ignacio said Filipinos have their own natural coping mechanism compared to other nationalities.

She said Filipinos’ strong faith in God, sense of humor and concern for others, are among the mechanisms that help them cope with depression. We are very much crisis-oriented and we have natural ways of coping with it,” she said. Ignacio said they consider these as forms of coping with mental disorders even without scientific basis.

Reyes said some mental patients could function normally again after being treated. “Of course, for example, a bank manager suffered from schizophrenia, he or she cannot go back as a bank manager, but as a clerk. There is some form of regression but in terms of symptoms, they are free from symptoms, but their functioning has already regressed in some form,” he said.

On the other hand, Ignacio revealed that the Philippines is facing an acute shortage of psychiatrists due to the unabated migration of mental health doctors who seek greener pastures abroad.

Stress plays a great part not only on students but on every individuals daily living. Quoting from Arnold Burnout, defined as “exhaustion of physical and emotional strength” is a term used to describe the end result of prolonged stress.”  He further states that sustained, intense stress decreases productivity and narrows the individual’s perceptions. Too much stress blocks learning and decreases problem-solving ability, (1989:325).  Drs. Sally and Rena Lawrence have done extensive study in the area of stress and burnout in nursing. A recent article by these authors reads as follows: Common stressors for nurses are environmental conditions, emotional problems of patients and families, demands of patients and supervisors, working conditions, interpersonal and collegial relationships, and contemporary ethical and moral dilemmas.  The list of stressors is endless because of the nature of the nursing profession.  Unrealistic self-expectations are perhaps the most critical sources of stress, Sally concurs with the Lawrence statement; he writes, “Expecting too much of oneself can lead to burnout faster than any other single stressor,”(1980:912). Smyth in her book, Surviving Nursing elaborates on the “burnout” phenomena: the three major causes . . . are (1) a mismatch between efforts and results leading to disappointment and frustration, (2) a mismatch between nurse and environment leading to role ambiguity and conflict, and (3) a mismatch, between people leading to interpersonal conflict. Storlie adds a final dimension,” Disillusionment and burnout follow confrontation with reality in which the human spirit is pitted against circumstances intractable to change.

Foreign Studies

               There has been a trend toward increased student stress nationwide. Defined as the “physical and psychological reaction to issues and event emanation from one’s environment,” stress can be felt as the result of both positive and negative events. Both physical and mental symptoms can develop slowly over a period of time, sometimes masking the problem. 

               In support of the general belief that more college students are suffering the effects of stress and need additional coping resources, the studies referenced here provide a long term tracking of the number of students seeking help for stress-related issues what those issues may be, if stress affects performance and how stress is related to a college student’s life as a whole. 

                A study by Sherry Benton, published in Professional Psychology; Research and Practice was conducted over a 13 year period at Kansas State University, and used students who sought help as the basis for the study. The study writers indicated that they realized from the onset that those students seeking help, in general, have more complicated problems of a more serious nature than the students who don’t seek help. Even so, they found disturbing increases in several areas of student mental health. 

               In study conducted by Ranjita Misra and published online by the American Journal of Health Studies, a survey was conducted of 249 randomly-selected undergraduate students. The survey asked about distinct areas, Academic Stress, Leisure Satisfaction, time Management and Trait and State Anxiety. 

              These studies point out the need for stress management techniques for college students, with the Benton study revealing a real need for college counseling centers to be more aware and prepared to service clients with increasingly complex and severe problems. In the 13 year period of the study, the number of students with depression and suicidal thoughts doubled. Students seeking help after a sexual assault quadrupled, and the number of students dealing with health problems doubled. Surprisingly, three items previously though of as high priority concerns; substance abuse, eating disorders and chronic mental illness remained steady. 

  In the Misra study, the strongest factor affecting academic stress was time management, and the author strongly suggested that training in time management be recommended more often by faculty and counselors. The author also admits that the study would have been stronger if it had incorporated consideration of “work and life stress, employment status, social support and coping mechanisms,” – a fact borne out by the Benton study. (http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/stress.htm)

 A study by Psychologists in Washington were made and they have long known that stress affects our ability to fight infection, but a major new “meta-analysis” – a study of studies – has elucidated intriguing patterns of how stress affects human immunity, strengthening it in the short term but wearing it down over time. The report appears in the July issue of Psychological Bulletin, which is published by the American Psychological Association.

            Major findings are three-fold. First, the overlapping findings of 293 independent studies reported in peer-reviewed scientific journals between 1960 and 2001 – with some 18,941 individuals taking part in all — powerfully confirm the core fact that stress alters immunity. Second, the authors of the meta-analysis observed a distinctive pattern: Short-term stress actually “revs up” the immune system, an adaptive response preparing for injury or infection, but long-term or chronic stress causes too much wear and tear, and the system breaks down. Third, the immune systems of people who are older or already sick are more prone to stress-related change.

                Psychologists Suzanne Segerstrom, PhD, of the University of Kentucky, and Gregory Miller, PhD, of the University of British Columbia, analyzed the results of the nearly 300 studies by sorting them into different categories and statistically evaluating relationships. For example, the five stressor categories included: Acute time-limited stressors: lab challenges such as public speaking or mental math. Brief naturalistic stressors: real-world challenges such as academic tests. Stressful event sequences: a focal event such as loss of a spouse or major natural disaster gives rise to a series of related challenges that people know at some point will end. Chronic stressors: pervasive demands that force people to restructure their identity or social roles, without any clear end point – such as injury resulting in permanent disability, caring for a spouse with severe dementia, or being a refugee forced from one’s native country by war. Distant stressors: traumatic experiences that occurred in the distant past.

                The study about stress differences among university female students was made and investigated. University female students’ who perceived their stress   levels as mild, moderate, or severe scores on a stress inventory. Two hundred   fifty-eight women responded to the Student-life Stress Inventory and reported   their age. Instructors provided students’ semester course grades. Significant   differences were found among the stress level groups on all inventory category   scores. Posttests showed differences between most paired-stress level groups. No   differences were found among the groups on age and course grades. Questions   were raised as to stressful differences among female students. Other studies onfemale stress, identity roles, and personality types were recommended

      The results in this study showed vast differences in stress scores among adult female students who identified themselves by stress levels. That is, scores   for women on the inventory matched their perceived stress levels. Simply stated,   women who perceived their overall stress as severe, reported high scores on all   categories of the inventory; whereas, women who perceived their overall stress as   mild, reported much lower scores. However, there are limitations in the study as   many questions were raised. For instance, why were there such vast differences   among the female students? Did some women experience pleasant and   challenging situations, thus, perceived stress as mild; whereas, other women   experienced unpleasant and stressful situations, which they perceived as severe?   

              In spite of the limitations in this study, the hope is that data will be valuable to adult female students, instructors, and counselors. The findings may help female students in understanding their stressful experiences, attitudes, and behaviors. The data may help instructors and counselors in understanding why   
some of their female students show high anxiety, fear, and depression. Other   
studies are recommended on stress with adult female students including their   
identification roles and personality types.

Local Studies

            Nursing has always been associated with conditions of life and death, illness and suffering, recovery or stabilisation; however, the severity of illness and the complexity of care in hospitals have never been as great as it is today.  Traditionally, nurses have had little say in determining their working conditions and relatively no recognition for their knowledge and ability to participate in planning patient care.  Even their schedules, Salaries and job benefits were determined by management without nursing input. This situation has caused problems over the years but the intensity and demands of practice in today’s hospitals motivates nurses to leave positions in which they have no opportunity for participating in decisions affecting their practice.

 

A project by a team of occupational sociologists studied various work settings and found identifiable job types or positions which were seen as placing above average pressure on the worker.  These strains were related to the work environment and/or the job content.  Four problem areas were categorized as; quantitative overload: too much to do, excessive time pressure and stress, qualitative underload: too narrow and one-sided job content, lack of stimulus variation, no demands on creativity or problem-solving, or low opportunities for social interaction, lack of control: especially in relation to pace of work and working methods, lack of social support: inadequate social networks at home and with fellow workers.

 

            Another study done specifically with nursing personnel showed similar findings plus other negative conditions in the job and hospital setting.  According to these researchers, stress exists as a major issue in nursing.  Factors which their subjects identified as imposing job-related pressures were: staff shortages, increased demands by management, the need for greater knowledge and skills (compared with requirements when first employed), patients who were more critically ill, and an unmanageable work load (in terms of maintaining quality of work).  Nurses and student suffered from unrealistic self-expectations, a high-intensity work environment and an increasing number and variety of health workers with whom care of patient was coordinated.

 

Stress is described as the non-specific response of the human organism to a change in its environment. Student nurses are so much stressed on their everyday activities but still pursue to continue coz the profession is an occupation which provides a recognisable number of benefits to the newcomer. The occupational characteristics which have drawn aspirants to nursing still characterise the discipline. A study done in 1999 questioned students regarding their reasons for choosing to study nursing.  Responses included: a chance to help people, variety of job options, opportunities for advancement, job security, working with people rather than “things” and, being a member of a respected occupation.  The category, “chance to help people” was rated as most important twice as often as any other feature, (Sczekan & Betz, 1973).  Neff in the book, Work and Human Behaviour lists characteristics that are particularly significant for career choice.  These factors include provision of self-esteem, respect from others and opportunities for creativity.

 SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE

Name: ___________________________

 

Block: ___________________________

 

Direction:  Read carefully and check your corresponding answer.

      1.    Not Stressful

      2.    Mild Stress

  1.   Moderate Stress

4.    Severe Stress

  1.   Panic Stress

 

Factors that may cause stress:

Studies

1

2

3

4

5

Duties          
Term Exams/Quizzes          
Projects/ Requirements          
Schedule of Class          
Subjects          
Activities          
Organizations          
C.I. Professors          
Classmates          
Discontentment          

 

Family

1

2

3

4

5

Communication Gap          
Misunderstanding          
Lack of Harmonious Relationship          
Financial Problems          
Broken Family          
Too Much Freedom          
Moral Support          
Pressure          
Abuse          

 

Friends

1

2

3

4

5

Conflicts

 

 

 

 

 

Misunderstanding

 

 

 

 

 

Jealousy

 

 

 

 

 

Peer pressure

 

 

 

 

 

Insensitivity

 

 

 

 

 

Insecurities

 

 

 

 

 

Moral Support

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Relationship

1

2

3

4

5

Jealousy          
Break up          
Misunderstanding          
Lack of time          
Lack of harmonious relationship          
Oppose opinions          
Distance          
Other parties          
Lack of care          

 

 

  1. Never
  2. Sometimes
  3. Often
  4. Always

 

Age Group that Causes Stress

1

2

3

4

Infant

 

 

 

 

Toddler

 

 

 

 

School Age

 

 

 

 

Adolescent

 

 

 

 

Adult

 

 

 

 

Old Aged

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Never

2. Occasionally

3. Sometimes

4. Often

5. Always

 

Stress Coping Mechanisms

1

2

3

4

5

Praying

 

 

 

 

 

Fantasy/Daydreaming

 

 

 

 

 

Self-control

 

 

 

 

 

Repression

 

 

 

 

 

  

Chapter 3

Methodology

 

               This chapter presents the research method, sources of data, data gathering instruments that will be use in the investigation.

Method of Research

            In this study, descriptive method will be used by the researchers because this type of method tells existing facts or certain educational phenomenon. Similarly, it involves facts finding with adequate interpretation. (Barrientos-Tan, 2006) the data will be collected through the use of questionnaires and interviews of students from level three nursing students of Wesleyan university SY (2008-2009).

Research Instrument

            The researchers will make use of questionnaire in data gathering. It will be employed to come up the perception of graduating students regarding the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia as teaching device in Wesleyan university.

 

Administration of the Instrument

            The respondents will be interviewed personally by the researchers to supplement information. Prior to the data gathering process, permission to conduct the study will be secured from the Dean of the College of Nursing, such permission is necessary in order to establish rapport and cooperation with the teachers and the respondents.

Sources of Data

            The data to be used in this study will be gathered from the responses of the selected respondents from third year Nursing Students of Wesleyan university. Other sources of data will be gather from books, and researches from the internet.

Data Gathering Procedure

            After organizing, the first part of this study, the researchers will make the questionnaire wherein it will focus its study to the perception of graduating students in Wesleyan university about the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia as a teaching device use in Wesleyan university (2008-2009).

Statistical Treatment of Data

            The responses will be organized and will be qualified using the percentage system, the weighted mean, and the ranking methods.

            Statistical qualification of the data using percentage system will be going to be done using the formula given by Calderon (1993).

The formulas to be used are:

 

P or %=f/N x 100

Where P or % = percentage

              f = Frequency

             N= Number of respondents

On the other hand, the weighted mean was determined by applying the following formula.

     W – Weighted mean

TWF – Total Weighted Frequency

     N –       Number of respondents

            Formula for establishing classification or interval of each item in a given set the following ranges or scales were used

Degree                                            Responses                                        Scale             

    4                                                     Always                                                3.26-4.00

    3                                                     Often                                               2.51-3.25                      

   2                                                      Sometimes                                         1.76-2.50

   1                                                       Never                                             below 1.75

 

Degree                                               Responses                                        Scale             

  5                                         Panic Stress                                                4.5-above

    4                                         Severe Stress                                                3.26-4.49

    3                                          Moderate Stress                                       2.51-3.25

    2                                          Mild stress                                                   1.76-2.50

   1                                           Not Stressful                                             below 1.75

 

 

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